The entire human life, including sciences is based on the logic. But my question is How reliable is this logic? In this article I will analyze this issue from three aspects: philosophical aspect, psychiatric aspect and evolutionary aspect. Then I will draw a conclusion from them.
Culture-dependent and culture-independent methods were used to evaluate haloalkaliphilic archaeal diversity in Soda lakes of Wadi Natrun, Egypt. Physico-chemical characteristics of the lakes were examined in order to establish their effect on biodiversity of Archaea. We employed culture-dependent technique to study haloalkaliphilic archaeal diversity by using ten different complex media with different carbon sources, salinity (15% - 25% NaCl) and pH (9-11). Samples of sediments and water from different lakes were used as inoculants and enrichments were incubated at 37oC for 3-4 weeks. In addition, we surveyed the archaeal diversity in the water and sediment samples of four Soda lakes by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), and analyzing clone libraries of 16S rRNA genes amplified with Archaea-specific primers. Isolates belonging to the genera Natronococcus, Natronolimnobius, Natronomonas, Halobiforma and Halorubrum were recovered from brine samples by enrichment and identified by different phenotypic characteristics as well as sequencing of 16S rRNA. The archaeal diversity was highest in the sediment sample of Lake Zugm; as well the number of bands derived from archaeal DNA was highest in the DGGE profiles of sediment samples. All sequences fell into the phylum Euryarchaeota and Crenarchaeota. The library comprised new phylotypes which consisted of two clones that exhibited low 16S rRNA similarity (94 – 98%) with known species and could potentially represent new species in the genus Halorubrum, one clone with 94% similarity to Natronomonas which could represent a new species, as well as two unidentifiable phylotypes which exhibited 90 - 91% similarity to uncultured archaeon clone.
In this paper, a new approach to fractal image compression is proposed. The proposed approach is designed using the imperialist competitive algorithm (ICA) from the movement perspective of angle of colonies towards imperialist’s position. A given image is sub-divided into block of pixels and these blocks are considered as countries. The countries make-up the domain block, we then determine the imperialist within the domain block. In this case, the mean squared error (MSE) is considered as the similarity measure for obtaining the range block. The idea behind the use of ICA is that during the search, only the domain blocks of similar structures of the image are selected. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm reduced significantly the computation time required for the MSE-based similarity search between the domain block and the range block. Moreover, the advantage of the proposed algorithm is that the encoding time is 245 times faster than the full-search algorithm.
The aim of this study is to introduce an application that enables information sharing and communication between visually-impaired individuals and able-bodied. For the purposes of the study, web-based audio library automation was designed and the usability of the system was analyzed regarding the volunteers who record audio books and the visually-impaired individuals. The visually-impaired individuals who took part in the test procedures in order to make a general evaluation of the system reported that the system was theoretically necessary and successful. As for the usability aspect, positive comments were received regarding the automation system developed. The authors believe that the current study is likely to be an alternative reference source for the related literature and further research studies to be conducted in the field.
Automated segmentation of white matter (WM) and gray matter (GM) is a very important task for detecting multiple diseases. The paper proposes a simple method for WM and GM extraction form magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of brain. The proposed method is based on binarization, wavelet decomposition, and convexhull and produce very effective results in the context of visual inspection and as well as quantifiably. It is tested on three different (Transvers, Sagittal, Coronal) types of MRI of brain image and the validation of experiment indicate that an accurate detection and segmentation of the interesting structures or particular region of MRI of brain image.
One of the Islamic appearance aspects can be considered in forming the cities in different historical periods. Islamic concepts have been mingled to Iranian culture so tightly that its parameters can be seen in many places around us. This research seeks to investigate the rules for forming the cities in a case study regarding the tradition, methods as well as social and cultural flows in Tehran city.  Thus, two questions were discussed to reach this purpose: 1. Which scientific, cultural and identity parameters include theoretical frameworks of the planning process of Islamic city in Tehran? 2. Which parameters of Islamic city planning play a more effective role in modern Tehran?Research method of this study can be considered in two parts. In the first part, the analytical and descriptive studies were used, characteristics and parameters of Islamic city in different eras (from the beginning of Islamic era in Iran until now)were investigated, and the significant cultural and identity parameters and principles were extracted in each period, which were generally as retrospective studies. The above-mentioned extracting principles were obtained using the library method and the Internet as well as using other written and visual documents, then the comparative studies were used to compare the principles extracted from different periods in order to find the basic effective parameters through discovering the similar procedures to explain the theoretical frameworks of Islamic city planning in modern Iran. In the second step , there was a field trial studying the reliability and validity of parameters resulted from the primary extraction for planners of Islamic cities in modern Iran and also through the weighting and priority of these parameters, the questionnaires of theoretical principles of studies and the subject literature were re-evaluated by the experts of this field ( the experts opinion will be obtained using the questionnaire and deep interview) .Finally , the same questionnaires were used to survey the users of urban spaces and in the final step , the results of weighting of each identity and cultural parameters were extracted from the Islamic city planning in modern Iran, which were obtained by the experts of spaces users and theoretical concepts principles to find the reliability and validity in order to explain the suggested theoretical framework for Islamic city planning. To reach an exact study field, Tehran city was considered the place of study as well as the place and culture variables of people were controlled and the gender separation and age were adjusted to reach a comprehensive conclusion of study. The results of the current research represent some parameters, including legibility and dynamics, unity and integrity, considering water and plants elements, introversion and confidentiality, considering indigenous materials , utilizing the religious , native and domestic culture have played an effective role in forming and planning Islamic city .  Moreover, the dynamic and legibility parameters have played a more effective role in planning Islamic city than other parameters in modern Tehran.
Geography focuses on the investigation of the distribution of natural and human created phenomena over the Earth`s surface. Geographers are interested in documenting where things are and in trying to explain and analyze geographic distributions. Planning involves working to further the welfare of people and the communities that they live in by creating sustainable, equitable, efficient, and aesthetically pleasing living environments in the present and future. Planners work in various settings and at many different scales from rural areas to very large cities, as well as suburbs and resort areas. In a nutshell, planning involves integrating the desires of a communityâ€™s citizens with professional methods of analyzing population trends, economic patterns, and infrastructure availability to develop a sustainable plan for future development.