One of the most important and effective factors of everybody’s life is subjected to the relationship between parents and children. Based on the theoretical model of parent-child relationship pattern, the role of family in making the psychiatric approaches has an essential and sophisticated importance significantly. These are the most necessary for target-based activities of children and any damages to these can lead to the behavioral-psychiatric disorders. The main aim of the study is to evaluate the relation between different patterns of parent-child relationship with students self-efficacy beliefs and affective self-regulation strategies. For the reason, based on a correlation design plan, a sample including 396 students of scientific-applied university in Tehran megacity were taken up as a multistage sampling method as well as questionnaires of Parent-Child Relationship Patterns, General Self-Efficacy Scale and Measure of Affect Regulation Styles. The results showed that there is a significant relationship between the patterns of parent-child relationship and self-efficacy beliefs; in addition to these, the results of structural model analysis confirmed the causative relationship between these variables. But, there is no found any relationship between the patterns of parent-child relationship and affective self-regulation strategies and the results of the structural equations specified that none of these patterns influence on the affective self-regulation strategies; however, the results of correlation analysis represents significant relationships between the sub-scales of the parent-child relationship patterns and other sub-scales of affective self-regulation strategies. The analysis of the findings correlation determined the relationship between self-efficacy beliefs with affective self-regulation strategies and the whole sub-scales in this regard. Also, the results of structural model analysis confirmed the significant impact of self-efficacy beliefs on the affective self-regulation strategies.
The basic responsibility of nurses to maintain patient safety include notifying the patient and colleagues about risk and risk reduction methods, Supporting the patient safety and reporting adverse events to a responsible person. Without creating a safety culture in all health facilities does not occur a sustainable development in the patient care. This study aimed to determine the patient safety culture in teaching hospitals in Gorgan until officials use the results to improve their status and ultimately improve the patient\'s rights. In this cross sectional, target group was nurses of 5Azar, Taleghani and Deziani hospitals in Gorgan in 2011. The study population included 348 nurses in these hospitals. Data collection instrument was a questionnaire with 43 questions. For classification, it is considered below of 40% as a weak, between 40.1% - 60% as a moderate and above of 60% as a good. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. Statistical tests were ANOVA and T-Test. 24% of nurses believed patient safety culture is weak, 46.8% of them reported it moderate and 30.7% believed it good.The weakest dimension was non-punitive response to error and strongest dimension was organizational education. Statistic test indicated a significant relationship between patient safety culture and experience (p= 0.021), employment status (p= 0.001), hospital (p= 0.001), ward (p= 0.003). Statistic test did not indicate a significant relationship between patient safety culture and education, sex and age groups. Statusof the patient safety culture was moderate from view point’s thenursesbut it is necessary that it is improved in the dimensions of the non-punitive response and the staffworkload.
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of fruit consumption and physical activity on decrease of lung functions caused by smoking. This study was carried out on 303 healthy males aged 16-72 years. Smoking, fruit consumption and physical activity characteristics of the subjects were determined with an inquiry. Vital capacity (VC), forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEVı), FEVı/FVC, peak expiratory flow (PEF) and forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of forced vital capacity (FEF25-75) were measured using Pony Spirometer (Cosmed, Italy). According the results of the inquiry, the subjects were divided into 8 groups: 1) Non-smoking, sedentary, not consuming fruit (control= C); 2) Non-smoking, sedentary, consuming fruit (F); 3) Non-smoking, exercising, not consuming fruit (E); 4) Non-smoking, exercising, consuming fruit (EF); 5) Smoking, sedentary, not consuming fruit (S); 6) Smoking, sedentary, consuming fruit SF); 7) Smoking, exercising, not consuming fruit (SE); 8) Smoking, exercising , consuming fruit (SEF). Smoking groups had lower respiratory functions than non-smoking ones. S had imaller FEVı, FEVı/FVC and FEF25-75 values than C; SE had smaller PEF and FEVı hıes than E; SF had smaller FEVı and FEF25-75 values than F; and SEF had smaller 7YC, FEVı and FEF25-75 values than EF. The test values of the fruit consuming groups were found to be greater than those of non-consuming ones. FEF25-75 value of the F was -ıgher than C, FEVI/FVC and FEF25-75 values of the SF were higher than S. The combined effects of fruit consumption and physical activity on respiratory functions were synergetic. EF had greater FVC and FEVı values than F. The FEVı and PEF values of SEF vvere found to be higher than SF and SE, respectively. in conclusion, fruit consumption and/or physical activity nıay prevent, at least delay, the harmful effects of smoking on lung functions. Therefore, it will be useful to consume fruits frequently and/or exercise for those persons who are in diffıculty or refuse to quit smoking.
Intra abdominal adhesions are a common side effect of abdominal surgeries. They can lead to intestinal obstructions, pelvic pain and infertility. There is a belief that Satureja Khuzestanica, which is a native plant of Iran, can play a role in preventing adhesions. In traditional medicine, this plant has been used for its different effects including anti bacterial, anti oxidant, anti lipid and anti inflammatory effects. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of vitamin C and Satureja Khuzestanica in the prevention of post surgical intra abdominal adhesions. In this experimental study, we used 40 female rats. These rats were randomly divided into 4 groups, each containing 10 rats. For the first group, 10 ml of 0.9% normal saline was administered, 250 mg/kg vitamin C for the second group, 250 mg/kg Satureja Khuzestanica for the third group and vitamin C plus Satureja Khuzestanica for the fourth group. After surgery, the grade of adhesion was calculated using Mazuji classification. Also, samples were sent to pathology for assessing fibrosis, inflammation and vascular proliferation. The results of this study showed that 250mg/kg of intra peritoneal Satureja Khuzestanica in addition to vitamin C decreased abdominal adhesions significantly after laparotomy. However, further studies are needed to confirm the results of this study.
The Guelph permeameter (GP) technique for measuring saturated hydraulic conductivity above the water table has a strong theoretical base and enables experiments to be carried out quickly and economically. The GP method utilises Richard’s two-head analysis to determine soil’s saturated hydraulic conductivity (Kfs) and matric flux potential (Øm) above the water table. However, a high percentage of Kfs and Øm values may be negative. The purpose of this study was to evaluate single- and two-head analysis in relation to these negative values. Boreholes were excavated in loamy soil. In each borehole, water was ponded in constant heads of 0.05, 0.07, 0.10, 0.12, 0.15, 0.18 and 0.20 m and the steady-state flow (Q) values were read. In order to improve the single-head analysis, some values for the sorptive number (α*) were recommended. The recommended values were based on experimental results. Results showed that, for the bigger constant head (H2), the values of KS calculated with the recommended α* are close to Kfs when the ratio of H2/H1 > 2, and the correlation increased as the H2/H1 ratio increased.
Tuberculosis is one of the most important causes of infection worldwide, especially in low income countries. Socio-demographic disparities are obvious in prevalence of this disease. A prospective study was designed and new cases of smear positive tuberculosis were included to determine the incidence and relapse rate, with access to health records of tuberculosis patients in a provincial health center in south of Iran. In our study, new cases of smear positive tuberculosis were observed in foreigners than Iranians (68.9% vs 8%) and so was the relapse rate (14.5% vs 0.5%). Incidence rate was higher in men compared to women (11.2% vs 7.4%), and so was the rate in urban dwellers (11.6%) compared to rural population (7.2%). New cases were seen in 24.6% of people aged over 50 years and relapse rate was 1.8% in this age group. We conclude that relapse of smear positive tuberculosis and incidence of new cases is more prevalent in immigrants, and above the age of 50yrs. It is suggested thatthe Iranian National Health Policy should be guided by these socio-demographic factors while designing and implementing programs aimed at controlling TB transmission. Although the DOTS system is precisely followed up, there are some pitfalls in managing urban patients.
Background. European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM) excellence model is considered as an effective method for evaluating the establishment of Total Quality Management (TQM), which emphasizes customer’s satisfaction as well as the organization’s long-term success. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the viewpoints of Iran’s health managers and specialists regarding the structure as well as the usability of the excellence model.\nMaterials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2010-2011 in 13 Medical Sciences Universities were selected through simple random sampling among 41ones in Iran. A two-day workshop about EFQM model was held in all the 13 universities and after getting familiar with the principles, criteria as well as sub-criteria and their weighting, self-assessment approaches, and RADAR logic, the viewpoints of the managers and specialists were investigated through a questionnaire which reliability and validity had been confirmed. All the statistical analyses were performed through the SPSS statistical software.Results: Among the 285 individuals under study, 161 ones (56.5%) were males and 60.4% had B.A. or B.Sc. degrees. Moreover, 109 subjects (38.2%) were working as managers, while the rest were working as specialists. mean of years of experience for participants was 16.6+6.5. Almost 90% of the study subjects believed the principles and values of EFQM model to be highly compatible with political, economic, and cultural features of Iran’s healthcare organizations. Furthermore, the level of reasonability of scoring of EFQM model’s criteria was quite in accordance with Iran’s health system (Mean + SD: 4.1+0.8). Also, RADAR scoring card was shown to be an effective instrument for evaluating the performance of Iran’s healthcare organizations and identifying the strong points as well as the improvable areas (Mean + SD: 3.7+0.8). Nevertheless, no significant relationship was observed between the viewpoints of the managers and specialists and individual variables as well as the classes of the universities under study (P>0.05).\nConclusion: EFQM model is an appropriate method for improving Iran’s healthcare organizations.